little ichthyology


     

Fishes and the following processing:

the cleaning of the fishes:

Wash the fish under fluent water, do not leave it in the water, because the fish will exhaust, then you can dry it.

to sour the fish:
Sprinkle the fish with citrone or vinegar from every side, the fishmeat is going to be stronger and tastier, the smell is banded. Then you have to leave the fish for about 30 minutes, so the soure thingscan be effective.

to salt the fish:
Directly before you cook thefish you have to salt it. Do not cook the fish, you have to simmer it until its done, if you would cook the fish it would fall into pieces.

cooking liquid:
Use the cooking liquid for other soups and sauces, because it contains a lot of nutrients. Before you bread the fish you have to dry it very well. If you make the whole fish you know that it is finished if you are able to remove the dorsal fin.

Frozen, breaded pieces of the fish should be immediatly fried until its brown.


     
             
     

The trout

The trout, the brown trout (Salmo fario) is a freshwater fish and is part of the family of the salmon. She can have the length of 40cm and a weight of 3kg. The colour is depending on the type of the incidence different. The skin if the fish is spotted. The back is olive-green to black, the sides green, the stomach pale yellow to white. The scales are very small. The meat is very soft and tasty, the best fish is from May to July. Because of the spreading of the trout-growing is the trout the whole year availabe. The trout is the delicatest fish in the gastronomic kitchen, e.g. blue-cooked or fried. The trout have to be vey fresh because it doesn´t keep very long. The trout lives in a clear, cold water in Europe.

     
             
     

The laketrout

The laketrout (Salmo lacustris) and the sea trout (Salmo trutta) are only other forms of the brown trout, which are adapted to the life in the lafe and the sea. This two forms get to a huge size (about 15 kg). The lake trout lives in the lakes of the alps and the high alps, thesea trout in the North- and East- sea , from where she swim to the rivers to spawn. You don´t really see a different between the salmon and the sea trout. Her meet is also red and equally matched.

     
             
     


The rainbow trout

The rainbow trout (Salmo irideus) is imported from North Amerika. She tolerates warmer and low in oxygen water more than the brown trout and because of that she is better the little ponds. The meat is the best one if the trout has an appropriate food. There is also the name "salmon-trout" but that´s only a false name for the sea trouts and the red-fleshy brown trouts.

     
             
     

Fishes, in general

Fishes are vertebrate, which breath through their gills and move with their fins, that means that tey are conformist to the life in the water. Most of them reproduse through eggs, the female lays a lot of eggs(spawn, roe). The skini of the fishes is mostly covered with scales. Normally they have an air-filled swimming bladder.

     
             
     

 

Fishes are a valuable food; they are rich in nutrtious protein, high quality lipoids (cholesterin, lezithin) imortant mineralsalts (whitewash, phosphorus, iron, iodine) and vitamines. The water content of the fish meat is higher as the one of the meat of the warm-blooded animals. 

Fishes are after the right preparation easy degistable and also easy to digest for sick persons. The saturation value is because of the easy digestibility and the high water content not as high as the one of meat. The best preparation is braising, steaming or frying. The cooking is not very good because the fish could be exhausted.

There are very much different forms of preparing a fish. The meat of most of the fishes is white, the one of the salmon is red. There are fishes with a very high fat content: river-eel (fat content 25% and more), salmon, herring, allis shad; poor at fat (less than 1% in the fresh fish): haddock, cod, pike, cut, flounder, sole, trout. The herring is the fish, which we eat in most of the cases, then haddock and pike are following.

In the trade they seperate the fishes in sea and in freshwater fishes, the freshwater fishes are subdivided in fishes from the river and fishes from the ponds. That seperation is not really workable because the fishes can also addept to another water and so they live where they want. The fishes from the sea are dead when they are sold, but freshwater fishes are sometimes alive.

The fishes in our rivers are sometimes called wild fisher, while the fishes from the ponds are mostly breedeed and fatten. The fishes from the pod have to be a time in a river ecause they could have a mud taste.

The most useful fishes of the sea are:

die Blankfische (Heringe, heringsartige Fische, Sprotten, Sardinen),
die Rundfische (Kabeljau, Schellfisch, Seelachs, Lengfisch, Rotbarsch, Makrele) und die
Plattfische (Scholle, Flunder, Seezunge).

Die wichtigsten Nutzfische der Binnengewässer sind: Karpfen, Schleie, Barsch, Blei, Plötze, Lachs, Zander, Hecht, Aal, Forelle.


     
             
     

 

Fishes, which are alive have to be in a water container and that has to have enough fresh air. If the fishes snap for air they have less oxygen in the water.

Before you slaughter a fish you have to anaesthetize it; after the anaesthetization the fish has to be killed. It is allowed to send eels and platfishes in a wet packing.

They don´t have to be anasthtized before the slaughter, you only have to cut the head or the entrails. It is not allowed to show crustaceans on ice.

You have to kill them in a waym so they can be thrown seperate in spoiling water. The tearing out of the bowels is not allowed by animals, which are allive.

If you prepare a fish you have to look at the freshness of the fish. Identification marks: red gills, clear eyes, fresh colour, solid meat, wet skin, solid scales.


Fresh fishes have elastic meat and so you can do the finger pressure test: Press the fish with the fingers a little bit; the mark should remove very fast. If you by an living fish you have to observe th eswimming technique. The fish should not swim on his back or on the side, if he do this he is nearly at his end.

If you buy dead freshwater fishes, then you can lay them horizontal on your hand. The fish should not bend, if he do this hes is old. The meat of the fishes should not be slimy.

Fresh fishes are very easy to spoil so you have to eat it as earl as you can.